At a Glance
It is an unfortunate reality that established industries in many sectors do not welcome the emergence of new business models that encourage competition, introduce transparency and disrupt the existing value chain.
As a reaction, these established industries often engage in efforts to control prices, limit availability, and curtail secondary markets. Such efforts are wide-spread and range throughout the entire product life-cycle. Examples include distribution contracts prohibiting sales over online marketplaces, refusals to provide spare parts, product monopolies protected by IP law, resale prohibitions imposed on consumers, and prohibitions to re-purpose.